1723. Qualified Privilege (Civ. Code, § 47(c))

Under the circumstances of this case, Plaintiff cannot recover damages from Defendant, even if the statements were false, unless he/she also proves that Defendant acted with hatred or ill will toward him/her.

If Defendant acted without reasonable grounds for believing the truth of the statements, this is a factor you may consider in determining whether he/she acted with hatred or ill will toward Plaintiff.